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Some are visible only under the microscope while others reach 20 meters in length. Some almost do not show signs of his existence and live in the body for years, and the other lead to hasten the death. Let's see, what are intestinal worms in humans and how are they dangerous?
That distinguish the different types of worms?
Mainly, the adult worms live in the intestine of man. And their larvae can migrate through the body, causing the mass of the unpleasant symptoms of his stay.
For example, the ascaris – she polovozrelye individuals live in the gut and practically does not show, therefore, guess the find in the body is not so simple. However, the eggs of ascaris, trapped in the body through the oral cavity and down to the intestine, begin to travel throughout the body with the blood, until that enters the lungs, and from there, through the expectoration and ingestion of phlegm, back to the intestine.
Other individuals, such as opisthorchis (fluke) hit the bile path. Paragon (pulmonary dens) lives in the lungs, the muscles or the diaphragm. And Echinococcus may exist in any organ of the body, not excluding the bones.
The ways to penetrate into the body
The more often the eggs or larvae of parasites enter the body through the oral route. You should eat a dirty apple, or take it into his mouth with dirty hands (often this "sin" of the children), and eggs of helminths. But this is not the only way of infection. For parasites such as Ancylostoma will not be difficult to penetrate the host through the skin. The eggs of helminths can easily enter into the body with breathing (rub the nose of wool infected cat), by injuries and other damages on the skin or in the genital organs (while swimming in the pool).
The division of the cycle of life
- In some individuals, the cycle of the "egg-larva-sexually matura the individual" takes place without change of host (in an organization).
- Among others, the development cycle affects multiple owners. Clear examples – tapeworm or Ancylostoma.
Pinworms are small nematodes are white, up to 1.5 cm in length. You can see in the stool with the naked eye – look like to cut the wires. The life of the pinworm does not exceed a few weeks.
Pinworm is the most prevalent parasite in children.
The nematode causes the disease enterobiasis, most often in children of preschool and primary school.
Get enterobiasis easy – sources are already sick people vectors, things for their personal use, and objects of common use. Even the sick can infect themselves.
Pinworm females in the evening or at night come out of the rectum to the anal hole and lay their eggs on the skin around it. They are covered with mucus, which causes itching and forces the man to scratch the anus so eggs fall down on the fingers, under the fingernails and begin their broadcast. If you do not wash your hands or take a bit of food, or chew nails – the eggs fall into the intestine and begin to grow, until they turn into an adult. It happens rainwise. Exactly the same contract and the people around sick people – bed linen, tableware and objects of everyday life, which touched, even with unwashed hands sick, become sources of pinworms.
We know that ascariasis is sick of 25% of the world population. This nematode reaches 40 cm long and lives about one year, then dies and is eliminated from the body as well as in faeces.
The source of the contamination – domestic animals and contaminated vegetables or fruits. In addition, you can easily get ascariasis does not respect the rules of personal hygiene after the earthworks.
Ascaris are detected every 4 people.
The eggs of ascaris are found in the feces of animals in the soil. In favourable conditions, the egg matures to the larva, which preserves the vitality throughout 1 to 6 months. If what is a mature egg enters the body, and then, after a few hours, recens is excluding him, the larva begins its promotion of the small intestine, in the lungs, through the bloodstream. Once in the lungs, it will grow and cause a cough with expectoration of a great quantity of phlegm. Together with the phlegm, the larva would be found in the throat, there occurs re-ingestion and penetration in the small intestine. It is an end point, in which it will evolve into an adult.
Before the end of the ascaride has a hole that is framed by a certain resemblance of the teeth – it is attached to the wall of the intestine and feeds off of all the substances that a person receives with food.
Whipworms are small worms white, 4-5 cm long. The name of these nematodes is gone from their particular forms – part before the whipworm thin, hair-like.
Whipworms live and reproduce in the large intestine, feeding on blood and the mucous membranes of the intestine. The life of the individual can last up to 5 years. The females lay their eggs on the wall of the intestine, where they fall in the feces and are eliminated from the body.
The whipworm can cause acute appendicitis.
If the egg happen to get in a favorable environment, they begin to mature larvae. More favourable conditions for them to enter the earth. Of the earth, the green eggs fall on the legs of the animals, roots and berries that grow close to the ground, and from there (if take poorly washed fruit) move in the host organism.
Develop trapped in the body of the larva in the pancreas or in the cecum (which can result in appendicitis), and from there to crawl on the place of habitat – the large intestine.
These small worms (1-4 mm) cause a dangerous disease – trichinosis, can cause the death of the man.
The larvae penetrate into the body of the meat, did not pass enough of the heat treatment. People sick, and the carnivorous animals.
The reproduction of individuals begins in the small intestine. As soon as the female delivers the eggs, they are, through the walls of the intestine, the blood begin their journey through the body. In case of penetration into the muscle tissue, the larvae increase in size and form around the capsule. Over time, the capsule becomes impregnated with lime, and a few years ago.
: Trichinella can migrate to the vital organs of man.
In case of contact with the larvae in the heart begins trichinellosis myocarditis, if in the lungs – pneumonia, and pulmonary edema. In addition,: Trichinella strike the sight, hearing and the central nervous system. Fever, swelling, muscle pain, and lack of movement all the symptoms of trichinosis.
Ancylostoma is divided into two types – the duodenum (up to 14 mm in length) and the u.s. (up to 10 mm in length).
Live hookworms, mainly in the departments of the small intestine, attaching the suction cup to the mucosa of the intestine. Feed of particles to the mucosa and the blood (which often causes anemia, a specimen of night can use one-third milliliters of blood). The longitude of the life of the individual up to 8 years.
Contamination can occur from person to person.
The eggs are excreted into the environment by feces. Trapped in the ground, they can maintain the vitality for 2-3 months (depending on environment).
The contamination is person-to-person (hand shaking, sharing objects), and to violations of the rules of hygiene after the working of the land, the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Sometimes, penetrates through the skin – bare feet, lying on the grass or the earth.
Mechanism of infection, the life cycle and means of reproduction, such as the tapeworm broad, vague, and swine tsepen are similar. It is tapeworms, consisting of a huge amount of proglottid segments. Each segmentum, in effect, is independent of the body. With time, devoratis stuffed eggs, take out all of the influx of intermediate hosts. Then, either they die, or hirundo other animals.
A huge helminth, up to 10 meters in length. Are found in the large intestine, attachiatus head with two suction cups to her wall. Exist in humans, this parasite can 10 years.
Broad tapeworm — the largest parasite of man.
Eggs of tapeworm retain their vitality in the aquatic environment. They hirundo crustaceans, and their bodies become in procercoids, and then are hirundo another option master of fish (usually, it is of prey individuals). Of the intestine of the fish eggs will spread on its body, forming in the muscle fibers, the finns (the larvae are able to maintain viability for 5 years). In the case of heat treatment, the larvae will perish, and will be in the body of the definitive host.
Often the presence of tapeworm in the body, you can discover that grace gathered outside hirundo, because his stay, usually, is not accompanied by any symptoms.
Wave of tsepen
This parasite may be 4 to 10 meters in length. An intermediate host, magna corniger livestock, the end of man. A worm of earth giant can live in the human intestine for more than 20 years and during all this time, to produce approximately 10 billion eggs.
Wave of tsepen for the week of the shoot up to 50 see
Most often, the animals are infected by bovine tapeworm, eating food contaminated by the droppings of the grass. Being in the intestine, the eggs penetrate through the wall to total the bloodstream and are transported to muscle tissue. There, they formed the finn, who retains vitality 3 to 5 years.
If a person goes in the food is not up to the end of the cooked meat, Finnish released and will actively grow, develop and produce new segments, attachiatus to the wall of the intestine. In one day, the parasite may reach about 10 see
This worm consists of many segments and reaches a length of 3-4 meters. The process of development in organisms middleware and standing of the host is the same as in the bovine tapeworm. The only difference – devoratis are much more active and able of yourself to crawl out of the anus.
Swine tsepen sub-multiple of the increase.
The vector control, the alveoli are foxes, foxes, wolves, and others of the dog family. In the human body can obtain through eating fruits and vegetables contaminated with the feces of infected animals or by contact with wool.
This small parasite can lead to death.
The parasite is small, up to 4 mm long. Is deposited in the liver, after which begins to form Eurocity – cysts. The congestion of the Eurocity has been progressively extended, hits near fabric and form a node, measuring up to 15 see bubbles with a current of blood circulating through the body and form secondary outbreaks. The node may sprout in the neighbouring organs – the heart, the pancreas, and sometimes in the kidneys and the bladder.
Alveococcosis is extremely dangerous for the human, because it can lead to death. During the terminal phase of the disease is not curable.
Siberian (or cat) fluke – it is small in size (up to 20 mm long and 2 mm wide) dens, the habitat in which the liver, the bile the way, and the pancreas.
The more long-term parasite
Definitive hosts of the parasite, the people and the animals, mainly feeding on fish. Intermediate – the molluscs and the fish of the carp family. The infection occurs due to the penetration into the body of the larvae – they are located in the muscles and the subcutaneous tissue of fish. It is in the long term, a parasite in the body of the host, it can live up to 20 years.
This flat worm looks like a willow leaf – up to 5 cm long and up to 15 mm of width. Has two suction cups and mouth and the abdomen.
The definitive host dens is cattle. Recorded relatively few cases of the detection of this parasite in man.
In the environment eggs liver dens fall of cala invasive animal. In case of contact with water, they mature Miramichi, which, for the further development, need interim owner of a seashell. The continuation of the transformation that occurs in his liver.
The dens enters the body through water and food.
Then, the future dens fate of his master, and then enters the water and out of the water on the plants, where the end of its transformation, and it takes the form of adolescaria – sphaerica cysts, ingestion of which leads to the infection. It is therefore dangerous to water the vegetable gardens and pastures "raw" water, in particular of the pelvis vertical.
The name of the parasite itself - it lives in the liver. Once adolescere enters the stomach and the acid dissolves cyst, begins its movement through the wall of the intestine to the liver. They "percent" of its shell and is found in the bile duct, where and are transformed into sexually mature individuals.
A disease that causes the dens called fascioliasis. Contract they can eat meat invasive animal or without washing the vegetables and fruits, which is washed by contaminated water.