Parasitic organisms surround us everywhere. They cause diseases that are dangerous for humans: sleeping sickness, trichomoniasis, giardiasis, ascariasis and others. There is an increase in the number of parasitic diseases worldwide every year. According to WHO clinical data, 3. 5 billion people are infected with parasites. 70% of them are children. What are the symptoms of pathogenic microorganisms in the human body? How to get them out?
Etiology of parasitic diseases
Parasites exist and feed on living organisms: plants, animals, people. They can reside permanently in the host's body or temporarily (for the reproductive period). The types of parasitic organisms that live in humans are:
- Ectoparasites. They live on a person's skin and scalp or external organs. 92% are temporary or facultative parasites (blood-sucking insects, leeches). They are able to exist independently, outside the host's organism.
- Endoparasites. They live in the internal organs and tissues of the human body.
Pathogenic microorganisms exist in all kingdoms of nature. They are able to feed on various tissues and cells. The causative agents of amoebic dysentery and chronic colitis (Entamoeba histolytica) affect the mucous membranes of the large intestine, creating bleeding and open wounds called amoebic ulcers. The organ cannot function normally, pathological changes in the work of the gastrointestinal tract begin.
Main types of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Protozoa - ciliates (balantidia), amoeba (dysentery), trypanosoma (sleeping sickness is caused by a parasite that can affect the central nervous system, has the name Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense) and others. They live in the intestines and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, causing severe intestinal infections; organs of the urinary and reproductive systems of a person.
- Worms are the most widespread and numerous human parasites. Representatives: trematodes (Trematoda), tapeworms, flatworms - (Cestoda), nematodes - (Nematoda), acanthocephali (Acanthocephali). They live inside a person in the intestines, stomach, lungs; able to penetrate the heart, eyes, urinary and genital organs. 2-3% live in the muscles and bones, in the brain.
Main methods of infection:
- Bites of blood-sucking insects (mosquitoes, horseflies, flies can spread the infection over long distances).
- Contact with animals. According to clinical studies by parasitologists, dogs are the main asymptomatic carriers of echinococcosis.
- Unwashed fruit and vegetables.
- Failure to comply with personal hygiene rules (hands not washed before eating) - up to 86% of children under 14 are infected in this way.
- Drink unboiled, potable water from reservoirs and unverified sources.
- Swimming in forbidden places. Parasites living in water bodies enter the human body through the skin or by accidental ingestion. They also live in fish and crustaceans (a reservoir for bovine and swine tapeworms - a small pond snail).
- Unprotected sex - trichomoniasis.
The clinical picture of diseases caused by parasites
The symptoms of the disease depend on the type of parasite and its location. Manifestations of the disease are affected by the patient's general health and age. A person is able to live with parasites in the human body for a long time and not know their presence. With a decrease in immunity, he will show the first symptom of infection.
The signs of the disease begin with fever, weakness and fatigue. The clinical picture of the diseases caused by cestodes or amoebas is different.
One and a half billion people in the world suffer from nematode infections, 70% of them are children. Different types of helminths can cause different diseases. The main symptoms of the presence of parasitic worms in the digestive tract, the body are:
- Dyspeptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Stool disorders in humans, persistent tenesmus.
- The first signs of hemorrhoids.
- General symptoms of body poisoning.
Helminth, which affects the sensory system of the body, leads to keratitis, iritis, conjunctivitis of the eyes. In the terminal stage, a person completely loses his sight.
The second most common disease in the world is echinococcosis. Echinococcus, a parasite of the liver, causes the following symptoms in a person: a feeling of heaviness, pain in the right hypochondrium, chronic fatigue, yellow color of the skin and mucous membranes. In the terminal stages: abdominal bleeding, sepsis and abscesses and liver cysts with possible rupture and release of purulent contents into the abdominal cavity (peritonitis).
With pulmonary echinococcosis, patients show signs of suffocation, pressing chest pain, cough (at an early stage - dry, at the end stage - with purulent and green discharge and blood). According to clinical studies and observations, an adult patient develops pleurisy, inflammation of the lung tissue, peritonitis (the consequences of rupture of cysts and the release of pus into the pleural cavity and bronchi).
In 2% of cases, echinococci are able to affect the brain: a connective tissue, a dense capsule forms around the ribbon, surrounded by a membrane of brain tissues altered by inflammation - the glia. On MRI, multiple foci of parasitic cysts and hemorrhages are diagnosed. Hyperemia captures the membranes in the bladder area. In the initial stage, the patient complains of headache, dizziness, vomiting, tremors in the extremities and constant seizures. On the terminal, paresis of the lower or upper limbs develops. The patient is diagnosed with mental and neurogenic personality disorders: delirium, manic-depressive states, dementia.
In river fish live gorgonians, perches, pikes, tapeworms (tapeworms), capable of causing diphyllobothriasis in humans. The disease has long been asymptomatic in the intestine in the rectum. Against the background of a decrease in immunity or an exacerbation of chronic diseases, the appearance of symptoms is diagnosed. Patients experience lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, unstable stools, persistent tenesmus, weakness, fatigue, lower limb paraesthesia. With hypersensitivity, rashes and papules appear on the skin. In the terminal stage, the patient is diagnosed with B12 - anemia. Anisakids live in sea fish: herring, cod, cod, salmon, sea bass. They provoke the development of anisacidosis. The symptomatology of the disease is similar to diphyllobothriasis.
Parasites cause venereal and infectious diseases. In countries around the world, 250 million people develop trichomoniasis infection every year. Clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis:
- Hyperemia and edema of the vaginal mucosa.
- Burning and constant itching.
- Pain when urinating.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Dark green with blood and mucus from the vagina.
Trichomoniasis is dangerous for pregnant women and children. The disease causes serious complications in the embryo and newborn.
Treatment and diagnosis of human parasitic diseases
In 85% of cases, parasitic diseases start suddenly: high body temperature, diarrhea, nausea, weakness or other symptoms. A person seeks a doctor for advice. The doctor examines the patient, collects anamnesis, answers questions and prescribes a referral for laboratory and instrumental studies. Patients ask: how to treat? How to remove and expel pathogenic microorganisms? Methods of treatment depend on the type and type of parasite (protozoan, worm).
- Complete blood count with white blood cell count and ESR. An increase in ESR indicates inflammatory processes in the body; an increase in the number of eosinophils - for nematode infection.
- Immunological test and immunological blood test.
- With echinococcosis, an x-ray is performed - an examination of the chest, intestines (with a contrast agent) to establish the localization of the cysts.
- Study of faeces for parasites, general coprogram.
- Spots from the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix with trichomoniasis.
- PCR - This assay allows you to determine the causative agent of the infection with 98% accuracy.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, genitourinary system.
- ECG, EEG.
After receiving the tests, your doctor will prescribe treatment. The scheme includes the reduction of the symptoms of the disease, the destruction of parasites and their removal from the body. The patient must follow a strict diet. Food should be steamed or boiled. Exclusion from the diet of fatty, spicy and salty foods. To get rid of the infection, they use drug therapy (they prescribe pills, injections, suppositories). The drugs of choice against protozoal infections are antiprotozoal and antibacterial agents. Surgical treatment is used only in the terminal stages of the disease. Also, antihistamines are prescribed to relieve inflammation and swelling.
In the intestinal stages of ascariasis, the doctor prescribes anthelmintic drugs. Tablets destroy parasites and eliminate the symptoms of the disease. The eye drops drip into the conjunctiva which can kill and remove pathogenic microorganisms.
Pills alone cannot cure the disease, in addition to it, folk remedies, herbal medicine are used. The main herbs for removing worms are tansy, wormwood, calamus, fennel.
With diphyllobothriasis and anisakidosis, patients are prescribed a strict and therapeutic diet and medicinal substances that can remove and heal the body from pathogenic microorganisms.
For sleeping sickness, a drug is prescribed that can rid patients of trypanosomes.
For sexually transmitted diseases, gynecologists prescribe antiprotozoal drugs, additional suppositories or vaginal tablets. Before going to bed, it is recommended to take baths with chamomile and calendula to relieve itching and burning.
Folk remedies to get rid of parasites
Consider an herbal recipe for killing worms. To prepare the infusion, take 4 g of wormwood, 5 pieces of cloves; add 2 g of polygon, calamus and thyme, 2 g of lemon balm and tansy inflorescences, 0, 5 g of valerian. Mix well and pour 500 ml of hot water, leave to infuse for 12 hours and drink during the day after eating.
5 g of chamomile, tansy, sea buckthorn and oak bark are poured with warm water and placed in a warm place for 7-8 hours. It is recommended to use a thermos. To remove helminths, drink 5 tablespoons after meals 3 times a day.
To completely get rid of worms, use enemas with decoctions of herbs, garlic. To prepare it, pour 5-6 cloves of garlic with half a glass of cold water; put on fire and bring to a boil, but do not boil. Then cool down and carry out the procedure 2 hours before leaving the house. Together with the feces, the parasites will leave the intestine.
Getting rid of worms with baking soda is an unusual and untested method. Enemas and oral solutions are made with it. Before the procedures, you need to speak to your doctor.
It is important to remember that herbs have contraindications to use. Before using them, you need to consult a doctor. Main contraindications: pregnancy, childhood, gastrointestinal diseases.
With timely treatment, a person completely gets rid of parasites. The patient must correctly follow the doctor's prescription and take medication. After a course of therapy, he has to undergo medical examinations for a year and take exams.
Prevention is aimed at preventing the entry of cysts, larvae of parasites into the human body. The doctor will tell the patient what the worms look like, about the methods of protection and first aid for parasitic infections. Medicine has not created vaccines and vaccinations against such infections.
- Maintain personal hygiene. A person should wash their hands with soap or other disinfectant after using the bathroom, walking, handling soil and water, and before each meal.
- Moms must monitor and teach their children to maintain personal hygiene. Do not put hands or dirty objects in your mouth.
- Vegetables, berries and fruits should be washed in lukewarm (hot) water before use, preferably with baking soda to kill parasites and cysts.
- Water must be boiled before drinking. Do not drink from unverified sources (streams, rivers).
- You cannot swim in forbidden places - ponds and ponds not equipped.
- Monitor the health of your pets. Conduct pest preventive courses. Use drops applied to the withers for dogs and cats as a prophylaxis and first aid for parasitic infections.
- Prepare fish and meat products strictly according to technology.
- Having a partner, avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse.